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Nanotech Pain Drug Formulations Developed

Knee X-ray

(Akha, Wikimedia Commons)

2 April 2018. A pharmaceutical researcher developed treatments for chronic pain, formulated as nanoscale droplets, that in tests with lab animals target the source of pain directly and use much smaller doses than current pain drugs. Jelena Janjic, a professor at Duquesne University’s pharmacy school in Pittsburgh, described the formulation process and test results in a paper at last month’s American Pain Society Scientific Summit in Anaheim, California.

The need for new types of pain drugs is made more urgent by the continuing crisis of opioid addiction and overdoses, a problem intertwined with relief and management of pain, for which opioid drugs are usually prescribed. Opioids work by reducing the intensity of pain signals to the brain, particularly regions of the brain controlling emotion, which reduces effects of the pain stimulus. Examples of leading opioid prescription pain medications are hydrocodone, oxycodon, morphine, and codeine.

“Today’s pain medicines travel through the entire body,” says Janjic in a university statement. “Our approach is different: it delivers the medicine only to the injured area in the right amount, no more, no less.” To achieve these properties, Janjic’s process delivers the pain and inflammation drug celecoxib, a non-opioid compound often prescribed for pain associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, as tiny droplets of 100 to 500 nanometers in an emulsion with standard surfactants.

Janjic says this process makes it possible to sharply reduce the amount of drugs given to treat chronic pain. In tests with lab mice and rats, induced with several types of injuries, the nanoscale drugs used 2,000 times less of the compounds than conventional formulations. The nanoscale drugs were given as single injections, which reduced behaviors in the animals indicating pain for anywhere from one week to one month after the injections.

In addition, a nanotech approach makes it possible to combine therapies with diagnostic functions, resulting in so-called theranostic drugs. Some nanoscale formulations can, for example, be viewed with MRI scans or other optical imaging technologies. By combining these functions, physicians can tailor the administration of pain medications to the precise needs of the patient, made possible with closer monitoring of the patient’s responses. In a 2015 paper, Janjic and colleagues described manufacturing methods to produce theranostic nanoscale emulsions in small, medium, and large-scale batches.

Duquesne says Janjic became interested in designing better pain medications when she became a chronic pain patient, and chose not to take opioid drugs. Janjic later helped start the university’s Chronic Pain Research Consortium, in which she now serves as co-director. The consortium is an interdisciplinary initiative drawing participants from the university’s pharmacy, chemistry, nanotechnology, psychology, nursing, neuroscience, and occupational therapy departments.

“These findings represent a complete paradigm shift in how we approach pain treatment,” adds Janjic. “The data strongly suggest a potentially universal pain reducing approach.”

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Antibodies Licensed for Multi-Target Immunotherapies

Computational biology illustration

(Lawrence Livermore National Lab)

2 April 2018. MedImmune, the biologics subsidiary of drug maker AstraZeneca, is licensing antibodies from a biotechnology company for treatments that simultaneously address two or more cancer targets. The deal could bring drug discovery enterprise Compugen Ltd. in Holon, Israel as much as $210 million if all aspects of the agreement are fulfilled.

Compugen uses computational biology to identify new drug targets, based largely on genome and protein analysis, combined with experimental and disease data analysis. Its genome and protein analyses provide details down to specific genes, messenger RNA codes, and proteins. Compugen also says its protein analysis algorithms can identify binding segments on a protein of interest or interacting segments within a protein, which include discovery of segments blocking interactions between or within proteins, which have implications for therapeutic peptides.

In addition, the company says it has large databases of patient disease and clinical data to associate drug targets to outcomes. The database originally focused on immune system checkpoints, a leading strategy for cancer immunotherapies. More recently, that database added targets derived from bone marrow-related cells in supporting environments for tumors. Still another Compugen database stores gene expression data related to 1,400 tissue types, segmented by normal, diseased, and drug-treated patients.

Compugen says it takes the discovery process further to provide better targeting for cancer immunotherapies, for which a large percentage of solid tumor patients do not respond. The company says its algorithms identified new sets of immune checkpoints in a separate family of molecules, by analyzing variations at the genome and protein levels in greater detail than before. One of those immunotherapies is Compugen’s lead product candidate, code-named CGEN-15029/PVRIG, approaching clinical trials. Another immunotherapy candidate is already licensed by drug maker Bayer, as reported by Science & Enterprise in 2013.

Under the new agreement, MedImmune receives an exclusive license to Compugen’s antibodies for development into bi-specific and multi-specific therapies. Antibodies normally bind to a single target proteins with two separate links, but, according to Compugen, can be genetically engineered for each link to bind to separate targets. Further engineering makes possible binding to three or more protein targets. This multi-targeting enables multiple mechanisms of action in a single antibody.

The deal gives MedImmune sole responsibility for further research, development, and commercialization for those treatments. In return, Compugen receives an initial payment of $10 million and is eligible for further development, regulatory, and commercial milestones of $200 million on MedImmune’s first product, as well as royalties on sales. If MedImmune creates more products, Compugen will be eligible for further, but unspecified, milestone payments and royalties.

The deal enables Compugen to retain all rights to its single-target therapies, as well as in combination with other treatments. The company also discovers treatments for autoimmune disorders, where the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells and tissue, with one therapy candidate in preclinical development.

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Complications Can Result from Plastic Surgery Tourism

Cosmetic surgery poster

Poster for cosmetic surgery in Kaohsiung, Taiwan (Keith Alexander, Flickr)

30 March 2018. Surgeons at a Boston hospital report a continuing flow of cases where people go overseas for plastic surgery, only to encounter complications needing repair, including drug-resistant bacterial infections, after they return. A team led by Dennis Orgill, a plastic surgeon at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and professor of surgery at Harvard Medical School, describes its findings in the April 2018 issue of the journal Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

The popular image of medical tourism, seen as a practice by wealthy people in poorer countries going to the West for medical care, is not borne out by statistics collected by a 2014 study in the U.K. on cosmetic surgery that show just the opposite. That report by University of Leeds points out that most medical tourist cosmetic surgery patients are immigrants and other people of modest means in Western countries going to their home countries or medical centers abroad where the price tags for procedures are lower.

Orgill’s group at Brigham and Women’s Hospital found much the same results. The team went back in their records for outpatient plastic surgery over 7 years and found 78 patients coming to the clinic to deal with problems resulting from procedures done in other countries. All of the patients included in the analysis were residents of the U.S. when they went abroad for surgery, with nearly all — 76 of 78 — women, and an average age of 43.

The most frequent destination of the clinic’s plastic surgery tourists is the Dominican Republic, accounting for three-quarters (59 of 78 or 75%) of all cases. The destination is not surprising given the large Dominican community in Boston, representing about 1 in 13 residents. Other locations were mainly in the Americas — Columbia, Brazil, Venezuela, Argentina, and Mexico — accounting for 20 percent of the patients, as well as Syria, Turkey, and China. Abdominoplasty, known as tummy tucks, and breast augmentation made up 60 of the 78 cases, followed by foreign substance injections, breast lifts or reductions, and liposuction. Nearly a quarter, 18 of 78 or 23 percent, of the patients say they had more than one procedure while abroad.

Many of the former medical tourist patients were diagnosed with conditions requiring hospitalization. More than 1 in 5 patients, 17 of 78 or 22 percent, were admitted to the emergency department, while 12 percent required hospitalization. Nearly 1 in 5 patients, 18 percent, reported infections at the site of their initial surgeries, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and cephalosporin resistant E. coli bacteria. Other more frequent complications include pain, unhealed wounds, scars or other unwanted cosmetic results, and hernias. In addition, 4 patients say they received breast implants they did not request.

For the vast majority of patients (86%), their additional care in Boston was covered by insurance, including more than 6 in 10 — 48 of 78 or 62 percent — covered by the state’s Medicaid program. Orgill cautions in a Brigham and Women’s statement that a lower price tag for plastic surgery abroad can mean more problems and higher costs later on. “Patients need to be very cautious when they go outside of the U.S. for elective plastic surgery,” says Orgill. “The safety and regulatory systems that protect patients in the U.S. are often not in place in a patient’s home country.”

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RNA Treatment Tested for West Nile Virus

Aedes albopictus mosquito

Aedes albopictus mosquito, one of those responsible for spreading West Nile virus (

30 March 2018. A therapy for West Nile Virus made with interfering RNA molecules is shown in lab mice to reduce viral loads, including in the brain where the disease can do serious damage. The treatments and findings by a team from Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut are described in yesterday’s issue of the journal Cell Host & Microbe (paid subscription required).

West Nile virus appears in the in the U.S. during the summer and fall and is spread by infected birds, who then spread the virus to mosquitoes, and on to humans bitten by infected mosquitoes. Most people with the virus experience at worst mild symptoms including fever, headache, body aches, nausea, vomiting, and sometimes swollen lymph glands or a skin rash. Some of those affected, however, develop more severe symptoms, such as coma or paralysis that can last several weeks and lead to permanent neurological damage. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says more than 2,100 cases of West Nile virus were reported in the U.S. during 2016, including some 1,300 cases affecting the nervous system.

Researchers led by virologist and infectious disease specialist Priti Kumar are seeking treatments for West Nile virus, where so far no treatments nor vaccines are approved. Kumar’s lab studies gene therapies, particularly where RNA transcribed from genetic codes in DNA can limit or block production of proteins that cause infections. In this case, the Yale team devised a treatment based on short interfering RNA,  or siRNA, used in gene therapies to silence specific genes.

To treat West Nile virus cases that affect the brain, however, the researchers needed to take further steps to cross the blood-brain barrier. This barrier of tightly packed cells lining blood vessels prevents most molecules from crossing from the blood stream into brain cells, which keeps out foreign substances, but also keeps out most drugs to treat neurological conditions. To bypass this barrier, the researchers encased the interfering RNA molecules in a peptide known as RVG9R, derived from rabies viruses and can enter nerve cells in the brain. The team also formulated the treatments to be administered through the nose, which reduces the distance to brain cells.

The researchers tested the treatments in lab mice in late stages of infection with West Nile virus, also affecting their brain cells. Of the mice given the treatments, 90 percent survived after 5 or 6 days, while mice given a placebo formula died within 10 days. The team also found mice receiving the test treatments cleared the virus from their brains, and generated a long-term immune response.

Since the nasal anatomy in mice is different from humans, the researchers say the treatments still need more work. Nonetheless, the authors conclude nasal-administered RNA treatments are a promising strategy for treating West Nile and similar types of flaviviruses affecting the nervous system, possibly including the Zika virus.

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Time To Replace Your Business Equipment? Let’s Find Out

– Contributed content –

Electronics testing

(Pexels, Pixabay)

30 March 2018. At a certain point, every business owner and manager will need to ask themselves this question. Regardless of your company, tech evolves, it needs replaced and reinventing. So, what are the signs that you do need to upgrade your tech and how should you handle it when this day comes? First, let’s think about the signs.

Productivity is slowing down

You might find that your business productivity and efficiency is being impacted by the tech that you are using. This is particularly common with computers in offices. You see, when you buy your tech, it will be fast, operating effectively. It will help ensure that your employers can speed through their daily jobs. But as time goes on, the tech ages and eventually you are left with systems that are taking precious minutes to load. Those minutes may not seem like much, but ultimately they all add up and will eventually reach the point where it’s weighing down on every business process.

It’s at this point that you should think about upgrading the tech. However, you can check for other issues first. For instance, if the tech is taking a while to load, it’s possible the cause is a virus, not simply that the systems are old. This is certainly worth considering before you spend a fortune on new computers.

There’s new equipment on the market

It’s not always necessary to upgrade your systems when new technology or equipment enters the market, but it  can be worth it. Particularly, if your competitors have made similar moves. Basically, you should check out the market and see what other companies are doing. If they are upgrading their systems, then it’s probably best to follow suit. Though, you will have to weigh up the costs of this decision. Don’t forget though, it is possible to sell your old equipment in an auction to get some of the money you spent back. There’s more from Equify on this or check out similar companies to decide whether it could be the right decision for you.

You should also take into account that by upgrading your systems, you gain the chance of saving on energy which is fantastic news. Energy bills can really be a weight for your company, and if you have a chance to lower them, you should take it.

Handling the upgrade

You have two choices when you upgrade your equipment. Either you can purchase new systems and pieces of equipment, or you can rent it out. If you rent equipment, you will be saving costs in the short term but be paying more in the long term. However, you will make it easier to upgrade again in the future. Buying the equipment costs more but gives you far more control over your business model and how you use it. It also means you don’t have to add yet another monthly bill to your costs.

Ultimately, it will depend on your business model which option you choose. Some companies will find renting more useful while others will favour the security of buying the equipment outright. If you are buying, don’t forget you can get cheap, second-hand equipment online and if you buy in bulk it’s easy to keep costs under control.

Take this advice, and you should have a good idea of when it is time to upgrade your business equipment or technology.

Computer keyboard

(Michal Jarmoluk,

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Team Performance Explored in Multi-Sensory Work Sites

Inside Walgreens distribution center

Inside Walgreens regional distribution center, L – R: Walgreens manager Joe Wendover, Clemson engineering professor Sara Riggs, Walgreens staff member Daulten Stewart, and ClemsonLIFE student Dalton Cron (Craig Mahaffey, Clemson University)

29 March 2018. A research project is underway that examines the ways teams of workers adapt and perform in new industrial environments demanding attention to visual information as well as cues from sound and touch. The new study, conducted at Clemson University in South Carolina, is led by industrial engineering professor Sara Riggs, and funded by a 5-year $83,600 grant from National Science Foundation.

Riggs’s lab investigates cognitive ergonomics and systems engineering, particularly the interaction between workers and the increasing complex environment as new technologies are introduced into the workplace. Among the lab’s projects are studies of multimodal displays that present information to workers distributed across multiple sensory channels — e.g., visual, sound, and touch — and adaptive displays that enable adjustments in the mix or pace of information presented and processed by operators to meet individual preferences or needs of the job.

The new research explores multimodal and adaptive information displays in the workplace, but as experienced by teams rather than just individuals. In this project Riggs and colleagues are expected to develop statistical models linking individual and team situational awareness, with a work group using unmanned drones for search and rescue operations as a test case. The researchers plan to capture eye-gaze and team dynamics data indicating situational awareness and workloads in real time, and develop algorithms from these data that result in guidelines for getting the right information to the right team members at the right time.

In addition, the researchers plan to put together an initial set of multi-modal interfaces that combine  visual, audio, and tactile information channels. These interfaces will be evaluated against the earlier statistical models to find the optimal mix of presenting information needed by workers, while minimizing interference with the team’s visual workload.

An immediate benefit of this research is the design of information flows for workers with disabilities. People in the workforce with disabilities can take advantage of multimodal displays, as well as make adjustments in workplace settings with adaptive displays to fit their individual needs. And as such, Riggs is working with a nearby regional distribution center for the drugstore chain Walgreens, as well as the ClemsonLIFE program that helps people with intellectual disabilities adapt to the university experience.

Riggs explains in a university statement with an example of a flashing red light indicating a box is ready for packing. “We might find that if you’re color blind, that red may not be the best color for the blinking light because you might miss that,” she notes. “There may be other ways to indicate that, either adding a sound or maybe changing the color. We’ll be developing the predictive algorithms that would adapt the displays for the user instead of having one solution that fits all.”

ClemsonLIFE students train at the Walgreens distribution center for future employment, which plans to adopt the findings from Riggs’s study. Joe Wendover, field inclusion manager for Walgreens, says the results will help more than just people with disabilities. “You put it in place for someone with a disability,” he adds, “but it could really help everybody.”

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Drug Shown Able to Kill Malaria-Carrier Mosquitoes

Malaria trial participant

Clinical trial participant, who consented to being photographed, giving blood sample in clinical trial (Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine)

29 March 2018. A clinical trial in Kenya shows blood from people who take a current anti-parasite drug can kill mosquitoes carrying malaria, offering a potential new strategy for controlling this disease. Results of the study conducted by Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine in the U.K. appear in the 27 March issue of the journal Lancet Infectious Diseases (free subscription required).

Malaria, according to World Health Organization, affected 216 million people in 2016, which extracts heavy social and economic burdens in developing countries. In 2016, some 445,000 people died from malaria, of which 90 percent were in sub-Sahara Africa. Children under the age of 5 are particularly susceptible to the disease. The disease is caused by infections from the plasmodium parasite transmitted by mosquitoes. In humans, the parasite multiplies in the liver, then infects red blood cells. Symptoms, including headache, fever, and vomiting, occur 10 to 15 days following transmission from a mosquito bite.

A team led by Menno Smit, a physician as well as a doctoral candidate in malaria epidemiology, investigated use of ivermectin, a drug currently approved and given for parasite-borne diseases such as threadworm and river blindness that works by killing young, developing worms that infect individuals. Smit and colleagues from Liverpool and the Kenya Medical Research Institute tested a hypothesis that combining ivermectin with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, a therapy for malaria, could not only treat malaria in individuals, but also control mosquitoes that spread the disease to others.

The clinical trial recruited 141 adults with malaria but no further complications at a hospital in Kisumu in the western part of Kenya. Participants were randomly assigned to receive ivermectin in doses of 300 or 600 milligrams per day once a day for 3 days, along with the standard course of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, while a third group is given only dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. After 7 days, participants gave blood samples, which were then fed to caged mosquitoes responsible for transmitting the malaria parasite in sub-Saharan Africa.

The results show blood from people taking ivermectin kills more mosquitoes than people not taking the drug. After 7 days following taking the samples, blood from people taking the 600 milligram dose of ivermectin killed 97 percent of the mosquitoes, while blood from the 300 milligram dose recipients killed 93 percent, and 41 percent from those not taking the drug. These effects decline somewhat over the next 14 days, but still remained higher for the blood taken from people receiving ivermectin. Somewhat more participants receiving ivermectin reported drug-related adverse effects at the higher dose (11%) that at the lower dose (4%).

The authors conclude that adding ivermectin to standard dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, particularly at the 300 milligram dose, offers a promising new weapon against malaria. Smit also notes in a Liverpool statement, “We worked with colleagues from Imperial College London, who used our results in a mathematical model, which predicts that the addition of high dose ivermectin increases the impact on malaria reduction by potentially as much as 61 percent.”

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FDA Authorizes Interoperable Glucose Monitoring System

G6 patch and devices

G6 CGM patch and reading devices (Dexcom Inc.)

28 March 2018. The Food and Drug Administration authorized a device that electronically monitors blood glucose levels in people with diabetes, but is also designed to exchange data with other compatible electronic systems. The FDA’s action clears the G6 continuous glucose monitoring, or CGM, system made by Dexcom Inc. in San Diego, for use in the U.S. by people with diabetes age 2 and older.

Continuous glucose monitoring is required for people with diabetes, a chronic disorder where the pancreas does not create enough insulin to process the sugar glucose to flow into the blood stream and cells for energy in the body. In type 2 diabetes, which accounts for at least 90 percent of all diabetes cases, beta cells in the pancreas produce some but not enough insulin, or the body cannot process insulin. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder where the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy beta cells, shutting down or reducing insulin. According to the International Diabetes Federation, diabetes affects an estimated 425 million people worldwide. FDA cites data indicating nearly 10 percent of the people in the U.S. have diabetes.

The G6 GCM system uses a patch about the size of a U.S. quarter worn on the abdomen to monitor glucose levels in the blood. The patch is calibrated for individual users at the Dexcom factory, and worn for 10 days. During that time, people wearing the patch do not need to confirm readings with drops of blood from finger sticks. Data from the G6 monitor is transmitted to a dedicated device that displays blood glucose readings in real time, or to compatible smartphone or smart watch apps every 5 minutes that also track glucose levels over time.

In addition to mobile devices, the G6 CGM device can also exchange data with other electronic devices for blood glucose management, such as insulin pumps and dosing systems. If blood glucose levels reach dangerously high or low levels, it triggers an alarm, but when connected to an insulin dosing system or pump, those devices adjust insulin levels accordingly. Dexcom sponsored a study, with data published in 2017 that also show people with type 1 diabetes using a CGM monitor have lower blood glucose levels after 24 weeks than comparable individuals receiving the usual care.

FDA says it reviewed earlier stand-alone glucose monitoring systems under its highest risk level, known as class 3 medical devices, requiring more clinical trial data and extended reviews. Since the G6 device is designed to be part of integrated systems, FDA lowered the classification to type 2, for moderate risk devices. However, the agency added special controls to its standard medical device authorization, known as 510(k) clearance, meant to assure the device’s accuracy, reliability, and clinical relevance. FDA says this review process will serve as a template for future reviews of medical devices meeting these criteria.

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Paper Art Form Boosts Bandage, Wearables Adhesion

Polymer film with kirigami

Polymer film with kirigami cuts being stretched (Mass. Institute of Technology)

28 March 2018. An engineering lab adapted the traditional Japanese art form of kirigami to create a surface for bandages and wearable devices on knees and elbows that bend a great deal and thus are difficult to stay on. A team from Massachusetts Institute of Technology describes their techniques in the 5 March issue of the journal Soft Matter (paid subscription required).

The Soft Active Materials Lab at MIT headed by mechanical engineering professor and senior author Xuanhe Zhao studies materials that connect engineering to biological systems, particularly soft materials like polymers and gels, working with electronics. Researchers on this task, led by postdoctoral fellow and first author Ruike Zhao, are seeking materials that do a better job of sticking to areas of the body that bend frequently, such as elbows and knees, where they often fall off. The authors say a medical supplies company in China that makes a pain-relieving bandage brought this problem to the attention of the lab.

“Adhesives like these bandages are very commonly used in our daily life,” says Ruike Zhao, “but when you try to attach them to places that encounter large, inhomogenous bending motion, like elbows and knees, they usually detach.” Up to now, soft wearable electronics were made for areas that stayed relatively stable and avoided parts of the body that bend a great deal, such as joints.

The MIT team’s solution is to cut patterns into the material that allow it better absorb the strain of bending, without compromising the functions of the bandage or device in the material, nor adding more weight or thickness. For this task, the researchers employed the traditional Japanese paper art form known as kirigami, which combines simple paper folds and cuts to make intricate designs. Kirigami is similar to origami that involves only folding paper, not cutting.

The team first tested the concept on a piece of thin rubberized polymer plastic attached to an underlying stretchable surface. As the researchers mechanically stretched the underlying surface, the attached polymer loosened and detached. When adding kirigami-style designs cut into the surface, however, the polymer remained attached to the underlying stretched surface. While being stretched, the cuts in the middle of the polymer opened up, absorbing the strain, while the cuts in the polymer at the ends of the tested pieces remained closed, with enough strain transferred to the middle of the test pieces to keep them adhered to the underlying surface.

The researchers fabricated these thin kirigami-cut polymer films into a bandage and heating pad, as well as with printed electronics, and tested the devices on knees and elbows of volunteers. The heating pad maintained a temperature of 100 degrees F, while the electronics device featured light-emitting diodes. The team reports the devices remained adhered to the volunteers after 100 bends. Similar films without the kirigami cuts fell off after a single bend.

Ruike Zhao and colleagues applied for a patent on their techniques, and are looking into extending the concept to other soft materials, such as gels. The researchers are also working with the medical supply company that brought them the problem to devise pain-relieving devices with kirigami designs. “They make this pain-relieving pad that’s pretty popular in China,” she adds, “even my parents use it.”

Polymer films being bent

Polymer films with kirigami cuts, right, and without cuts, on knees while being bent. (Mass. Institute of Technology)

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Perfect Your Marketing Strategies Like A Pro

– Contributed content –

Coca-Cola logos


28 March 2018. When running a business, one area that you need to thrive in is the marketing. Marketing is where you reach out to your intended target audience and show them why they should all be doing business with you, whether that means buying your products or using the services that you are providing.

The first thing that you need to do is figure out who your target audience is to begin with. Who are you making these products for? Is there a specific gender you have in mind, as well as an age range? Are you sticking to your own country or making your business accessible to the world? These are all things that you need to think of before you even plan on strategizing because it will allow you to understand the direction that you need to go in.

Now you can focus on how to get some sales.

Post the right content

You should know by now that your business needs to be on social media as this is one of the best platforms to reach out to the masses. But it isn’t as simple as just making a small appearance every now and again. You need to be a regular sharer of interesting and enticing content that makes potential customers turn into regular ones instead. Having said that, you don’t want to go oversharing either as this will just annoy people and will result in them not wanting to follow you.

Help from the pros

If you are struggling with what to do, there is nothing wrong with enlisting the help from someone that specializes in the department you are after. Sites like give you a perfect online marketing plan that is made unique to suit your business. A lot of people don’t like to admit when they need help because they assume it makes them look weak, but this isn’t the case at all. The more you know, the better you’ll be.

Ads in the media

This is by no means a cheap investment, as paying your way to ensure an advert of your business appears on tv can cost an awful lot. You have to cover costs of the actors, the music, the filming, the editing, not to mention the fee to be featured on air. But, it really is a brilliant way of getting yourself out there because everyone watches the TV, and most people have the attitude of understanding that if the tv is showing it – it must be worth it. So if you can afford it and the risk is worth it, then this is definitely something you should consider like explains.

Now that you have a few examples, get yourself busy and come up with as many ways as possible to show the world why they should focus their attention on what you’re selling. The more exciting your brand is, the more of a chance you have at reaching the ultimate goal that every business wants – and that’s success.

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