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Infographic: Data Center Investment Skyrockets

Infographic: Cloud Boom Drives Data Center Investment | Statista
You will find more infographics at Statista

17 March 2018. Cloud computing is a resource used more and more throughout the technology world, and at Science & Enterprise, we’ve reported on many new projects and programs taking advantage of near unlimited storage and power that cloud computing offers. All of these cloud computing applications also require more data centers, the subject of this weekend’s infographic.

Our friends at Statista document the explosion in demand for and investment in data centers, from data collected by the real estate market research firm CBRE. In 2017 alone, investment in North American data centers nearly tripled to $20 billion, from $7.7 billion in 2016. And as noted in the text, “there’s little indication for this upward trend to end anytime soon.”

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Running A Leading Law Firm In 2018

– Contributed content –

17 March 2018. In the legal world, competition is fierce. It comes with the territory, after all. A legal professional is, by definition, an ambitious intellectual. It makes sense that companies dealing in legal matters would be led by individuals with the very same traits. There’s no denying that the legal industry is very profitable, but you’re up against such strong rivals that it can be hard to find success. There are many different niches and sectors when it comes to law, but you might be struggling to lead the way in your respective market. Here’s some advice that could guide your law firm to success this year.

Workers by office window


Organize your workplace.

If you want to run a leading law firm in 2018 then organization is essential. The best legal businesses run their operations like clockwork. You need to improve your workplace so that everybody is on the ball. Company culture is an integral part of cultivating your brand. Offer incentives such as bonuses or even early finishes as a reward for the hardest workers in the office; this will motivate employees to stay on track and up their game. It’s important to ensure that your employees are organized in order to keep your business productive.

Leading legal professionals exhibit professionalism by adopting a structured and cohesive approach to their work. In turn, this will ensure that your law firm becomes a professional environment that pushes your business to the top of your industry. You might want to look into legal document templates to help your employees stay organized and updated when it comes to creating documents for the company. It’s important that your team maintains a cohesive brand image and identity. Organization is about keeping your members of staff on the same page.

Work on your digital marketing campaign.

There’s no denying that the concept of advertising has changed over the last decade or two. Thanks to the internet, it’s now easier than ever to promote a business. However, for a law firm with little technical understanding, it might be more confusing than ever to spread the word about your company. Still, it doesn’t have to be. Building your online presence is about increasing the likelihood of potential customers finding your business. You want to have more of a presence than your rivals so that you stand a chance of being found first. Essentially, it’s like having the biggest billboard in the city. But modern marketing isn’t about shoving adverts in the faces of your target audience – it’s about letting them find you. You need to improve your website’s content so that rank highly on Google. That way, people searching for legal help are more likely to find your firm first.

Business handshake


Create a strong brand to impress clients.

The best law firms have a real vision for their future. As mentioned earlier, success is all about being ambitious in this industry. Of course, that might be the case for most industries, but the game can become very intense in the legal business. Developing a clear goal is important because you need to connect with clients, and clients want to seek help from a law firm that seems clear-headed and focused. Your brand needs to exhibit all the traits that clients expect to see in your legal professionals. It needs to be bold and stand out from the crowd. You need to make it clear that your company is made up of winners.

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Study Using Phones to Examine Blood Pressure, Stress

My BP Lab app

My BP Lab app landing page (Sage Bionetworks)

16 March 2018. A new research project is underway to better understand the linkages between stress and blood pressure, using surveys and physiological data collected with Samsung smartphones. The study, called My BP Lab, is a joint initiative of behavioral scientists at University of California in San Francisco and Sage Bionetworks in Seattle.

My BP Lab seeks to gather day-to-day real-life data on stresses in people’s lives and fluctuations in their blood pressure levels over 3 weeks. Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common condition affecting 1 in 3 adults in the U.S., or about 75 million people, according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. But barely more than half of people with the condition (54%) have their blood pressure under control, despite hypertension increasing the risk for heart disease and stroke.

A challenge up to now for research on daily stresses and blood pressure is finding quick, simple ways of reading blood pressure. Doctors’ offices, clinics, and drug stores use inflatable cuffs, which are stationary pieces of equipment. In this study, participants with Samsung Galaxy S9 or S9+ phones use a built-in optical sensor on the back of the phone to read blood pressure 3 times a day, by placing an index finger over the sensor. The My BP Plan app designed for the study reads blood pressure and volume in 20 to 30 seconds.

Through the app, participants also answer questions about demographic factors, personality and psychological traits, daily stress and emotional functioning. After the first week, participants will receive customized information about their stress levels, emotional responses, and physiological functioning. These periodic reports are expected to become more specific and personalized as the study progresses.

“This study potentially will provide the largest data set ever obtained on stress levels, health behaviors, and physiological responses during the course of one’s daily life,” says UC San Francisco psychiatry professor Wendy Berry Mendes, and a principle investigator on the project, in a Sage Bionetworks statement. “By collecting subjective experiences, behaviors like sleep and exercise, and blood pressure levels across a three week period, we can identify the most important triggers of stress physiology.”

The project has some limitations. First, all participants need to be adults age 18 and over from the United States. And second, the app works only on the Samsung S9 and S9+ phones. Other phones, even those running Android, will not work. The My BP Plan app was built using ResearchStack, an open-source software development kit for writing research apps on Android devices. A goal of ResearchStack is to make it easier to adapt research apps written for Apple’s ResearchKit to Android.

“The use of smartphones to distribute studies provides an easy approach for interested individuals to get actively involved in health research,” says Sage Bionetworks president Lara Mangravite. “Participants not only contribute to science but have the ability to immediately learn about their own health.” Sage is a pioneer in harnessing smartphones for research. As reported in Science and Enterprise, Sage Bionetworks took part in a study gathering data on multiple sclerosis using phones, and in February 2017, the group began a study using phones to photograph moles on the skin to evaluate their potential for cancer.

Mendes and colleagues from UC San Francisco tell more about My BP Lab in the following video.

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Getting the Right Support to Make a Success of Your Business

– Contributed content –

16 March 2018. When it comes to setting up your own small business, it’s easy to feel extremely alone. But a lot of the time, this is self-inflicted. Think about it: most of us make the active choice to be relatively secretive when it comes to entering the world of small business ownership. There are various reasons behind this. Some of us have full time employed positions when we start nurturing our dreams of working for ourselves rather than someone else. We have to keep our plans on the low down as we develop them for fear of rocking the boat and losing our jobs before we’re quite ready to leave and start up for ourselves. Some of us have innovative ideas and product or service concepts that we want to keep quiet about them until they’re fully developed and ready for the marketplace, as we are all well aware that there are many morally questionable individuals who may take our ideas and sell them as their own.

While being secretive in these situations is the completely logical choice to make, it can become an ingrained habit, and when you apply the behavior to all areas of your business, it can actually suffer for it. Of course, we don’t think you should go about preaching your trade secrets and new product developments to the world, but you do need to find the right support to help your business flourish and grow. You can’t take everything on yourself and carry the pressure of the entire business on your back, or you won’t have sufficient time and energy left to put into pushing your company and its products or services forward. So, here are some sources of support that you really should consider making the most of!



Web development

The world of commerce and consumer services really is taking to the web, and the majority of small business owners are jumping on the bandwagon and setting up online alongside the big companies such as Amazon, Alibaba, and Groupon. Now, most small businesses will outsource the web design work, and web set up to third parties and freelancers, as they don’t have the time our resources to easily learn the coding that is required to create a great site themselves. However, this is generally where their call for support will end in terms of their website. However, it’s extremely important to remember that a static website with no change or updates is a stagnant website that web users will quickly grow tired of. You need to constantly update with new products that will come hand in hand with new product photographs and new product descriptions. If you were happy with the service provided with the individuals or agencies that you used first time round, you should keep their contact details and have them photograph and write up descriptions of each new collection that you launch. This will help to give your site fresh content while maintaining consistency in both aesthetics and style.

Another important thing to remember is that your website needs to always be maintained. If it crashes, you’re bound to lose numerous sales and visits, as traffic will be trying to make its way through, only to reach error and 404 pages. Customers will only try to refresh so many times and usually their patience will last less than a minute before closing the tab or browser and looking for what you sell from a different supplier. Magento Support Services can provide you with timely and ongoing support that will make a profound difference. Consider using them if you currently have issues with your eCommerce store that aren’t resolved within twenty-four hours, have slow loading times, haven’t had your site optimized recently, are experiencing low conversion rates, or have experienced security issues with your site that might pose a threat to your clients’ trust.

Window washer


Commercial Property Maintenance

If you have commercial property running alongside your online presence, you will quickly grow to understand that it really does require high levels of maintenance to keep fresh, clean, and presentable. So many small business owners believe that they can keep on top of this themselves or palm cleaning duties off on their members of staff.

At the end of the day, you need to remember that it’s not really your staff members’ responsibility to be carrying out tasks such as cleaning. While they’re vacuuming the floors, dusting, polishing, or emptying trash cans, there really are more progressive and money making things that they could be doing while you’re paying them. You also, however, don’t want to take on full responsibility for this yourself. You have other areas to be focusing on too! So, you really should consider calling in professional cleaners to keep your commercial property up to scratch. Chances are that one full-time cleaner will not be able to complete all tasks to a high standard. Instead, consider calling on individuals who specialize in particular tasks on a freelance basis. This means that you can have window cleaners in to keep your windows streak free and clear as and when you need. You can also have gardeners or landscapers come in as and when required to trim back hedges, mow lawns, and pull weeds. The one member of staff you might want to have on a more regular basis would be someone who carries out more daily tasks such as polishing, dusting, cleaning the staff toilets, and mopping up spills.

These are just two areas of support for you to consider for the moment. But if you try them out, you’ll realise just how much time they free up for you to focus elsewhere. Some business owners feel like they are showing signs of weakness or falling below par when they ask for a helping hand, but this isn’t true. You need to focus your efforts on areas that will push your company forward and turn over more profit. How could you possibly do this if you’re spending all of your time fixing your website and carrying out cleaning tasks around the office? So, accept support for the sake of your business!

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Crispr Techniques Devised for Editing RNA

Salk Institute team

Salk Institute team, from left: Peter Lotfy, Silvana Konermann, Patrick Hsu, Jennifer Oki, and Nicholas Brideau (Salk Institute for Biological Studies)

16 March 2018. Geneticists and bioengineers developed a technology for applying genomic editing techniques known as Crispr to ribonucleic acid, or RNA, transcribed from the genetic code in a person’s DNA. A team from the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California describe the techniques in yesterday’s issue of the journal Cell (paid subscription required), where they applied the technology to correcting damaging proteins in nerve cells from a person with dementia.

Researchers in the Salk Institute lab led by Patrick Hsu are seeking to expand the use of Crispr to disorders that result from disrupted or erroneous RNA transcriptions. Crispr — short for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats — is a process based on bacterial defense mechanisms that use RNA to identify and monitor precise locations in DNA. The actual editing of genomes with Crispr employs enzymes that cleave DNA strands at the desired points, with Crispr-associated protein 9, or Cas9, being the enzyme used most often.

“Crispr has revolutionized genome engineering,” says Hsu in a Salk Institute statement, “and we wanted to expand the toolbox from DNA to RNA.” The Salk team explored splicing properties of RNA that enable production of some proteins, but can also have toxic effects if splicing goes wrong. Among the disorders that can result from mis-spliced RNA are spinal muscular atrophy and frontotemporal dementia. The researchers examined if other bacterial defenses against viruses could be exploited with Crispr to fix these damaging RNA errors.

A search of bacterial DNA databases revealed genomic patterns suggesting Crispr-type effects, and in the process uncovered a set of enzymes with properties indicating an ability to edit RNA. The researchers then needed to find a version of these enzymes in humans, and discovered the enzymes in a gut microbe known as Ruminococcus flavefaciens XPD3002. The team calls this human-friendly type of enzyme CasRx.

Hsu and colleagues tested the techniques with RNA splicing errors that generate accumulations of a protein called tau associated with frontotemporal dementia, as well as Alzheimer’s disease. The team engineered CasRx to target and reverse protein instructions that result in producing an overabundance of tau. And the researchers discovered that its small molecular size made it possible to efficiently deliver the enzyme with adeno-associated viruses, benign, naturally occurring microbes that can infect cells, but do not integrate with the cell’s genome or cause disease, and generate a mild immune response.

Tests were conducted on nerve cells from an individual with frontotemporal dementia, grown from the person’s stem cells. The researchers say the Crispr-edited RNA succeeded in rebalancing tau proteins in the cells to healthy levels, about 80 percent of the time. The team believes the findings show their techniques are feasible and can be programmed to treat a range of disorders that result from disrupted or erroneous RNA.

Hsu and first author Silvana Konermann tell more about their techniques in the following video.

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Quick Bacterial Blood Detection Gains Breakthrough Tag

Blood sample

(Public Domain Pictures/Pixabay)

15 March 2018. A technology that detects dangerous bacteria in patients’ blood samples in less than an hour received a breakthrough medical device designation from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The technology, known as Biospectrix, is made by 3i Diagnostics Inc. in Germantown, Maryland, which announced the breakthrough status.

The Biospectrix technology aims to provide physicians with a way of identifying bacterial infections in blood much faster than today, which 3i Diagnostics says can take up to 6 days. Much of that time, says the company, is for culturing of blood samples. Other non-culturing analytical methods require anywhere from 6 to 24 hours. Faster results are needed, says 3i Diagnostics, for a correct diagnosis and to prescribe the precise antibiotic needed. While chemical analysis can also return fast results, the technique destroys blood cells and bacteria in the samples, making them unusable for further testing.

The company says its technology employs a microfluidics chip with tiny channels and reservoirs etched into plastic tags that capture the sample of whole blood. Biospectrix then uses inertial forces to separate blood cells by size. After this separation, blood cells are forced through a nanoscale filter that breaks down the blood cells into fragments smaller than bacteria, or other microbes, allowing the microbes to collect unharmed.

At that point, blood cell debris is then removed with another filtering process, and excess water taken out to leave concentrated microbes on a surface made transparent for infrared examination. Infrared is used to perform a spectrometry analysis where the absorption of rays by the captured microbes form unique molecular signatures. 3i Diagnostics says with these signatures, its technology can identify a broad range of bacteria, without making prior guesses or assumptions.

The company says its Biospectrix technology can increase the survival rate for dangerous sepsis infections to more than 80 percent from the current 30 percent, as well as reduce unnecessary prescriptions for antibiotics that feeds the problem of resistance to these drugs.

A breakthrough device is a relatively new designation by FDA, authorized under the 21st Century Cures Act, and begun by FDA in December 2017, which builds on the previous accelerated review process called Expedited Access Pathway. It seeks to reward new devices that offer meaningful advantages over currently cleared technologies, addressing unmet medical needs, and where no other current alternatives exist. Breakthrough devices are given higher priority and more attention from FDA staff to reduce the time needed for agency review.

3i Diagnostics is a 5 year-old enterprise founded by chemical engineer Rajesh Krishnamurthy, who now serves as the company’s chief technologist. Jim Janicki is 3i Diagnostics’ CEO. In an interview in the online publication GenomeWeb published in January, Krishnamurthy and Janicki say the company is raising $5 million to fund further development of its technology.

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How the Healthcare Field Keeps Your Information Secure

– Contributed content –

Big data graphic

(DARPA, Wikimedia Commons)

15 March 2018. You don’t want your health information getting into the wrong hands. Not only because you may simply want to keep your health information private, but because your health information in the wrong hands can make life miserable for you in the form of identity theft.

Fortunately, the healthcare field takes your information very seriously. With HIPAA being passed a couple of decades ago, healthcare providers have gotten really good at keeping your information safe. Here’s how they do it.

Compliance and risk assessment software

Compliance and risk assessment software is important in a wide variety of industries, but nowhere is it more important than the healthcare industry. Your healthcare provider has a wide range of information on file about you including:

  • Your full name
  • Your date of birth
  • Your full medical history
  • A list of medications and treatments that have been received
  • Payment information

To ensure that information doesn’t get into the wrong hands and that they’re compliant with HIPAA, they use software that is able to identify non-compliant data, remediate weaknesses in the system, report risk assessments, and even integrate information from updated regulations. These systems are vital now that the majority of systems are internet- and cloud-based. Although convenient, it does make it easier for thieves all over the world to access your information unless these software is in place.

Proper staff training

It’s not just the systems that are important. The staff has to know how to use those systems, but they also have to know the ins and outs of HIPAA. If they don’t, they may accidentally divulge sensitive information and violate the policy without even knowing it.

Medical facilities take employee education seriously. Throughout the year, staff will:

  • Undergo training to know what does and doesn’t constitute a HIPAA violation
  • Learn about phishing, social engineering, and other scams that are meant to attack employees
  • Get advice on using technology safely, including how to create secure passwords

Protecting the network

Just because a healthcare agency is doing everything it can to ensure it is following HIPAA regulations doesn’t mean hackers care about that. A smart hacker can easily gain access to unprotected systems, which is why it is so important for healthcare providers to protect their wireless networks.

That means starting with firewalls and antivirus software, but it also means securing the wireless networks and encrypting important data. In addition, it means separating different departments and placing them on separate wireless networks. If you visit the doctor’s office, try to access their guest wireless network, and discover many different networks, you can feel confident that your healthcare provider is doing what they can to keep their systems secure.

Strict mobile device policy

It isn’t just the systems in the office that a healthcare provider has to worry about. Mobile devices are making it easier than ever for healthcare professionals to access vital information from multiple locations and networks. That means a strict mobile device policy is needed.

The right policy starts with outlining what devices are appropriate to use. For example, doctors may not be allowed to use their personal devices. Only mobile devices that are purchased and approved by the office may be used.

No matter what kind of portable devices are used, they should be encrypted properly. Hackers find it just as easy to access portable devices, which means cell phones and tablets require the same level of security as desktop and laptop computers.

Choose their third-party vendors carefully

It isn’t enough for healthcare providers to get their own systems figured out so they comply with HIPAA regulations. Anyone the office works with who might have access to health information needs the same level of security as well.

As much as 63 percent of security breaches occur on third-party vendor systems. That’s why healthcare professionals choose the vendors they work with carefully. First, they know which vendors need to have extra security. For example, a remodeling contractor likely won’t need any additional security, while a third-party IT company does.

Only vendors that have systems in place to comply with HIPAA regulations are able to work with your healthcare providers. They are interviewed and vetted before work even begins.

Thinking about your information getting into the wrong hands is a scary thought. Fortunately, your doctors, dentists, and other healthcare professionals have a vested interest in keeping your information safe, not just to provide good customer service, but in order to comply with HIPAA regulations. Knowing how they keep your information with the items on this list hopefully brings you some peace of mind.

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Taking a Short Break

Coffee and calendar book

(Myriams-Fotos, Pixabay)

13 March 2018. We’re taking a two-day break at Science and Enterprise, to conduct some personal business. But we’ll be back to our regular posting on Friday, 16 March. Watch for us then.

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Esophagus Tissue from Stem Cells Grown, Implanted

Pig close-up

(Mutinka, Pixabay)

13 March 2018. Replacement engineered esophagus tissue grown from stem cells was shown in tests with pigs to be a feasible alternative to transplanting pieces from other parts of the body for people with esophagus cancer. Results of the study by a team from the Mayo Clinic and the tissue engineering company Biostage Inc. that developed the technology appear in the 7 March issue of the journal Nature Scientific Reports.

Researchers led by Mayo Clinic thoracic surgeon Dennis Wigle are seeking better options for patients with advanced cancer of the esophagus needing affected parts of the organ removed. The authors cite data showing more than 500,000 people a year worldwide are diagnosed with this type of cancer, and that number is expected to rise by 140 percent over the next 10 years. For people not diagnosed until later stages of the disease or with more aggressive cancers, removal of part of the esophagus is often the only therapy. Reconstruction of the esophagus after removal is difficult, which requires transferring parts of the patient’s gastric or colon tissue, often with unsatisfactory results.

The study tested a technology devised by Biostage that grows new esophagus tissue from a person’s stem cells. Biostage, based in Holliston, Massachusetts, calls the process Cellframe that takes stem cells from a sample of person’s adipose, or fat, tissue. The stem cells are multiplied and seeded on an electrospun polyurethane scaffold or matrix. The seeded scaffold then is placed in a bioreactor for 3 to 5 days to allow replacement tissue to grow. The resulting Cellspan tissue implant is surgically reconnected in the patient, which provides natural signals for further growth and regeneration, with the scaffold later removed. In addition to esophagus, Cellspan implants are designed for replacing parts of the trachea and airways.

In the study, the researchers implanted Cellspan esophagus tissue in 8 Yucatan pigs, which have organs of about the same size and function similarly to humans. The team first took adipose tissue samples from the pigs, extracted mesenchymal, or adult stem cells, and grew replacement tissue on scaffolds about 6 centimeters in diameter to replace removed pieces of the esophagus. In the first 2 pigs to receive replacement tissue implants, the esophagus narrowed abnormally, that required euthanizing the animals. The next 6 implants added stents to hold the esophagus open after implantation. After 3 weeks, the scaffolds were readily removed from the remaining pigs with an endoscope-attached forceps, and no infections or foreign-body reactions reported.

The team reported growth of new esophagus tissue in the pigs, including mucous membranes, smooth muscles, and blood vessels. After 6 months, the stents holding open the esophagus implants were removed, allowing the new tissue to function on its own. At the time of reporting, 2 of the pigs were still alive after 18 and 19 months following the implants. The authors conclude engineered esophagus tissue grown from stem cells may be a feasible alternative to replacements with parts of the gastrointestinal tract.

While Cellspan implants have not yet been tested in clinical trials, in February a patient with cancer of the esophagus was implanted with replacement tissue grown from his stem cells. The Worcester (Mass.) Business Journal reports the implant was successful, but the patient later died from a stroke, apparently unrelated to the implant.

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Cancer Drug Seen to Reverse Autism Spectrum Symptoms

Zhen Yan

Zhen Yan (Sandy Kicman, University at Buffalo)

13 March 2018. Small doses of a drug for blood-related cancers are shown in lab mice to reverse social symptoms often found in children with autism spectrum disorder, a condition characterized by limited social activity. Findings from the study by researchers at University at Buffalo in New York appear in yesterday’s issue of the journal Nature Neuroscience (paid subscription required).

The team led by neuroscience and physiology professor Zhen Yan is examining treatments for autism spectrum disorder symptoms. Autism spectrum disorder is a collection of neurodevelopmental conditions marked by communication difficulties and impaired social interaction, as well as repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. Some 1 in 68 children have autism spectrum disorder, according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, with males 5 times more likely to have the disorder than females. Classic autism is considered the most severe form of the syndrome.

Yan and colleagues are exploring ways to reverse the effects of a non-functioning gene called Shank3, considered a high risk factor of autism spectrum disorder. Proteins coded by Shank3 enable the functioning of synapses, the junctions of nerve cells responsible for signaling, with some 43 mutations in the Shank3 gene found in people with autism spectrum disorder. These mutations prevent or disrupt production of Shank3 proteins.

In earlier work, Yan’s group found the lack of Shank3 proteins disrupts receptors in the brain needed for normal nerve cell functioning. These N-methyl D-aspartate or NMDA receptors help keep synapses flexible, which affects memory, learning, and development of the central nervous system, as well as lack of social interaction common in autism spectrum disorder. To make up for this lack of key proteins, the researchers tried a solution that changes genetic material in cells called chromatin that forms chromosomes. To accomplish this remodeling task, they needed an agent that could modify the chromatin, allowing for normal expression of genes in those cells.

The Buffalo team turned to a currently approved cancer drug known to modify chromatin in cells. That drug, known as romidepsin, treats some types of leukemia and lymphoma by blocking enzymes that stop basic proteins in the formulation of DNA called histones. As a cancer drug, romidepsin disrupts histones and thus the formation of DNA that supports leukemia or lymphoma cells.

In the case of autism spectrum disorder, romidepsin — in a class of drugs known as histone deacetylase or HDAC inhibitors — frees up the chromatin in cells allowing Shank3 genes to function normally. As Yan explains in a university statement, “The HDAC inhibitor loosens up the densely packed chromatin so that the transcriptional machinery gains access to the promoter area of the genes; thus they can be expressed.”

The researchers tested their hypothesis in lab mice deficient in the Shank3 gene, and who failed to display normal social activity. The team gave the mice minute doses of romidepsin for 3 days, which resulted in restored functioning of NMDA receptors as well as proteins providing flexibility to synapses in the mice brains, and according to the authors, “rescued their social deficits.” In addition, the effects of these treatments lasted 3 weeks, which the researchers say is equivalent to several years in the human lifetime.

Yan founded the company ASDDR LLC in Amherst, New York to commercialize her lab’s findings. In June 2017, ASDDR received a 2-year, $777,000 Small Business Technology Transfer award from National Institute of Mental Health, part of National Institutes of Health. That grant funds further preclinical research on romidepsin as a treatment for autism spectrum disorder.

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