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Reducing Your Construction Company Costs

– Contributed content –

Highrise construction


13 Mar. 2019. Running a construction company can be a huge challenge, but a very rewarding one indeed. If you get it right, your company could be very profitable and go from strength to strength. However, there is always one aspect of running a business that many construction entrepreneurs struggle with: trying to keep their operational costs down to an absolute minimum. Sure, building materials and tools can be very expensive, but there’s no reason for them to eat into your whole budget.

Here are five ways you can reduce your construction company’s costs in no time at all.

Switch suppliers

First of all, it’s worth reviewing how much you pay to your usual suppliers. Many suppliers and vendors regularly increase their prices without telling their customers. So, you might not be paying a lot more than what you were when you first started using them. If you review your bills and see that this is the case, it’s time to switch to a new supplier. If you go to and other supplier websites, you can review their services and prices. It might also be worth getting a quote to compare to what you are currently paying.

Replace old machinery

If you regularly work with machinery, it is always important that this is serviced on a regular basis. That’s especially the case when machinery gets older. Services will show any repairs and maintenance that need to be carried out to make it more efficient. If you are running tools and equipment that isn’t very efficient, it could actually be costing you money. It may even be beneficial to replace it completely. Even though buying new equipment will be expensive, it will be a lot cheaper than running inefficient machinery that will end up draining your bank balance.

Find employees with transferable skills

When you are hiring new employees, you should try to find people who have skills that can be used in different roles. For instance, when you are hiring builders, it’s always worth looking for builders who can also drive forklifts, plaster walls, etc. They will then be a lot more use to you, and you won’t have to hire quite so many staff.

Get better at estimations

When you are starting a new job, you will need to spend time estimating how many materials you will need for it. More often than not, building companies end up overestimating, which can end up being a waste of money. If you improve your estimation skills by taking a course like, you will find that you save a lot of money on each job.

Always deliver on time

Construction projects tend to overrun. Again, this is something that can end up costing the construction firm more money than originally intended as they need to pay employees for longer and use more materials. So, if at all possible, you should always try to stick to your schedule. That’ll please both your bank balance and your client!

If you use all of the five tips above, you could save a lot of cash.

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Spin-Off Producing Commercial-Grade Graphene

Graphene illustration


12 Mar. 2019. A company based on university lab research in the U.K. says it’s producing graphene, a promising carbon-based material, in quality and scale for electronics. Paragraf Ltd., in Somersham, England is spun-off from the materials science lab of Colin Humphreys at University of Cambridge, and says it now can create graphene in large enough units for electronic devices, a step that up to now was difficult to achieve.

Graphene is closely related to graphite like that used in pencils. The material is very light, strong, chemically stable, and only one atom in thickness, arrayed in a hexagonal pattern. Graphene can conduct both heat and electricity, with potential applications in electronics, energy, and health care. In 2010, two researchers at University of Manchester in the U.K. received the Nobel Prize in physics for their discoveries on graphene.

While graphene always held a lot of promise, translating that promise into tangible results has proven elusive. For electronic components, for example, making graphene in a large enough area required using copper as a catalyst, which — according to a Cambridge statement — contaminates the material, making it less desirable for these devices. Two postdoctoral researchers in Humpreys’s materials science lab at Cambridge, Simon Thomas and Ivor Guiney, developed techniques for making large-area graphene sheets, comparable to those made of silicon to fabricate semiconductors, without copper.

Humphreys, along with Thomas and Guiney, started Paragraf in 2015 to commercialize this process. By May 2018, the company gained £2.9 million ($US 3.8 million) in seed funding led by Cambridge Enterprise, the university’s commercialization arm. And in October, Paragraf moved into its research and production facility in Somersham, where it started working on commercial-grade graphene. Thomas is now Paragraf’s CEO, while Guiney is chief technology officer. Humphreys, now on the faculty of Queen Mary University in London, continues as the company’s board chair.

Paragraf says its production process for electronics makes it possible to form graphene directly on semiconductor and transparent crystalline surfaces. This ability to deliver graphene directly in single or multiple layers, removes the need for earlier multiple-stage methods, and is thus a faster and more economical process. Paragraf says its direct-transfer process also eliminates the need for toxic materials, making it safer and more sustainable. The company plans to start shipping its first devices in a few months.

The company says it applies this production technique to producing solar panels as well as semiconductors. At the end of 2017, Paragraf and solar panel manufacturer Verditek plc began a partnership to develop graphene-based solar arrays. The new large-area panels are expected to be lighter and more energy efficient than standard solar panels. The company also plans to apply graphene to supercapacitors, a next-generation technology for energy storage with potentially higher charging speeds and greater capacity.

More from Science & Enterprise:

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Genomics, A.I. Calculate Immune Health

Immune - scrabble tiles

(Blue Diamond Gallery)

12 Mar. 2019. An international team designed a technique to gauge a person’s immune system age and health, by analyzing genomic and cellular indicators with machine-learning algorithms. Researchers from Stanford University in California, along with Technion Institute and the start-up company CytoReason in Israel describe their technology in the 6 March issue of the journal Nature Medicine (paid subscription required).

Researchers led by immunologists Mark Davis at Stanford and Shai Shen-Orr at Technion are seeking more accurate and reliable measures of immune system health, which declines with age. Yet, while new therapies are developed that harness the immune system to treat diseases like cancer and disorders from malfunctioning immune systems, clinicians still lack a reliable metric or indicator for characterizing this key function in the body.

“It’s been sixty years since the last immunological benchmarks, complete blood counts, were introduced into general medical practice,” says Davis in a CytoReason statement. “This much more sophisticated method reflects the tremendous explosion of knowledge generated in the field.”

The Stanford-Technion team tracked 135 healthy individuals for 9 years, taking periodic measures of various immune system indicators. These measures include genes expressed in whole blood samples, responses of cells to cytokines or signaling enzymes emitted by immune system cells, and characteristic traits of specific cell subsets in the body. The huge store of data collected from these volunteers over time provided raw material for computational techniques, including machine-learning algorithms and natural language processing, developed in Shen-Orr’s lab at Technion in Haifa called a cell-centered analysis model.

These algorithms and model enable the researchers to compute a composite indicator for immune system health over time that the research team calls immune age. “The immune age is a biological clock,” notes Shen-Orr, “that will help to identify in individuals, the decline and progress in immunity that occurs in old age, with the aim of determining preventive measures and developing new treatment modalities to minimize chronic disease and death.”

The team validated the immune age model with 2,000 patient records in the Framingham Heart Study, a continuous tracking of cardiovascular health with thousands of adults in Framingham, Massachusetts since 1948. The researchers report the immune age model predicted mortality from any cause among those selected beyond the risk factors routinely identified in the Framingham study.

CytoReason is a 3 year-old enterprise in Tel Aviv that applies Shen-Orr’s research to drug discovery and development. The company uses computational methods to identify new disease targets, provide insights into mechanisms of diseases and drugs working in the body, and explain differences in response interactions between drugs and diseases. CytoReason collaborates with pharma and biotech companies to help guide their drug discovery decision-making, but is not developing its own therapy pipeline.

The company says immune age measures can help plan clinical trials, particularly studies of drugs invoking the immune system, by supplementing chronological age as a criterion for inclusion. The CytoReason web site provides case studies of its technology with treatments for inflammatory bowel disease, atopic dermatitis or eczema, and melanoma, an aggressive form of skin cancer.

More from Science & Enterprise:

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Damaging a Successful Brand

– Contributed content –

Man at laptop


12 Mar. 2019. Brand management is one of the toughest and most important areas of marketing. It can take a long time and a lot of hard work to build a successful brand that people trust and respect. However, all of this effort can be undone in an instant. While you may feel you’re running your business as usual, just one tiny error can have even those most loyal to your brand looking at you in a completely different way. With that in mind, here are eight ways to damage your brand.

  1. Failing to keep promises

Nothing frustrates a customer more than being promised something, yet not getting it. If you build your image around certain guarantees or promises, then you need to make sure that you deliver on them every single time. Not doing so will make your business seem untrustworthy compared to others out there. To be on the safe side, you should underpromise, but aim to deliver more.

  1. Skimping on customer support

Even when you’re trying your very best to offer an exemplary product or service, there will still be a customer or two who has an issue with it. Whether this is your fault or not, you need to ensure they have a way to reach you when this happens. This means offering several contact methods, which you clearly display. When customers can’t get in touch, it makes bad situations worse.

  1. Using poorly designed websites

Consumers tend to look a product up online to find somewhere to purchase it. This means that your website will give the first impression of your brand. For this reason, you may want to invest in professional help. For more difficult niches, you can opt for an expert, like a CBD web design agency. They will be best equipped to create an attractive site that is also easy to navigate.

  1. Publishing low-quality content

Today’s mobile devices are more than capable of creating great content of any type. For this reason, most consumers expect brands to publish content that is of the highest quality possible. This means videos with excellent sound and lighting and unique and informative blog posts. By doing this, you’ll show yourself to be an expert and become a helpful resource for consumers.

  1. Over-promoting your brand

While part of building a successful brand is telling others about your business and what it can do, you shouldn’t shove your successes in your customers’ faces. After all, if someone were to come up to you and tell you what makes them so great, you wouldn’t enjoy it very much. Instead, you should show your customers that you’re the best and let them do the praising for you.

  1. Attacking somebody else’s brand

Your products or services may be of better value or quality than those of your competitors, but that doesn’t mean that you should directly slam them in your promotional material. If you mention another company by name, even to explain why you’re better, consumers will only remember the other brand that you mentioned. With that in mind, you should only speak about your business.

  1. Acting in unprofessional ways

When trying to build a brand, you’re on display for the entire world to see. This means that, if you were to do something unprofessional, consumers would have the opportunity to judge you for it. This could massively harm your brand’s image. To avoid this, you should avoid any childish behaviors and act in a respectful way at all times. You can also ask employees to do the same.

  1. Ignoring all negative feedback

After working so hard to create a business, reading negative feedback can be tough. However, you shouldn’t ignore it either way. While there are sure to be trolls with nothing constructive to say, most bad reviews will highlight specific issues with your brand or products. With this information, you can make changes and improvements to keep your customers happy.

Being a business owner is never easy, but building a brand that people can trust is definitely a tough job. You’ll need to invest a lot of time and money into this venture and tackle any number of challenges along the way. Things go wrong every day in business, of course, but, wherever possible, you should try to protect your brand. Hopefully, with the information above, you will be able to do just that. Even one small mistake can put customers off your business, so make sure that you avoid making any of the major errors listed above.

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Trial Shows Engineered Plant Product Heals Wounds

Tobacco plants

Tobacco plants (Beeki, Pixabay)

11 Mar. 2019. A small-scale clinical trial shows synthetic human collagen derived from engineered tobacco plants promotes closure of lower-limb wounds, often difficult to heal. The study, conducted in Israel, tested a wound-healing product made by regenerative medicine company Collplant Ltd, and reported last month in the journal Wounds.

Collplant, in Ness Ziona, Israel, develops an engineered form of human collagen called rhCollagen, short for recombinant human collagen. The company makes rhCollagen from tobacco plants engineered with 5 human genes, which take about 8 weeks to grow. While tobacco is associated with many harmful health outcomes, it is a fast-growing plant, often studied in labs as a model species. Extracting, processing, and purifying the tobacco leaves, says CollPlant, returns a pristine form of human collagen — the most abundant protein in the body found mainly in skin, bones, and and muscles — that performs better and without harmful immune responses than collagen derived from animal and even human tissue.

Further processing of rhCollagen makes it possible to derive products for tissue engineering, including a product called VergenixFG for healing lower limb wounds often considered difficult to treat. These chronic and acute wounds include foot ulcers suffered by people with diabetes, pressure ulcers faced by people in long-term care, and wounds from traumatic injuries and surgery. VergenixFG — the FG stands for flowable gel — is delivered as a powder then mixed with a saline solution and delivered with a syringe to form a gel that fills the wound area, and covered with a standard dressing.

The company says VergenixFG provides a scaffold for cells and blood vessels to grow from surrounding tissue to close the open wound. Only one application of VergenixFG is required, says Collplant, which reduces the healing time and prevents infections.

The clinical trial recruited 20 participants at 5 Israeli hospitals with slow-healing lower-limb foot ulcers from diabetes or other chronic conditions, as well as patients treated for traumatic injuries or wounds from surgery. Participants had an average age of 63 years, and 80 percent were male. All participants were treated with a single dose of VergenixFG; no comparison group was used. The study team of physicians, all independent from Collplant, followed participants for 4 weeks, photographing and measuring wound sizes during that period, as well as assessing amount of pain experienced by patients, and tracking adverse events.

The results show after 4 weeks, half or more of the 20 participants experienced wound closure of at least 94 percent, with 15 of the 20 participants displaying 70 percent or more wound closure. Nearly half, 9 of 20 participants, achieved complete wound healing. No adverse effects related to the treatments were reported during the trial, although a participant experienced an infection, which the researchers say healed on its own. In addition, one participant failed to respond to the treatment.

“This study,” says Collpant CEO Yehiel Tal in a company statement, “conducted by an independent group of physicians, demonstrates that a single application of VergenixFG yields remarkable wound closure results. Furthermore, comparing this study to other published studies conducted with animal-derived collagens reveals that VergenixFG is more potent.”

Collplant also formulates its synthetic tobacco-derived collagen into bio-inks for 3-D printing. As reported by Science & Enterprise in October 2018, the company Lung Biotechnology in Silver Spring, Maryland is licensing Collplant’s bio-inks to help create 3-D printed lungs for transplantation.

More from Science & Enterprise:

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Population Data Show Genetics-Health Links

Population genetics

(National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH)

11 Mar. 2019. The first batch of data from a large-scale genomic sequencing project in the U.K. shows strong associations between several gene variations and common health conditions. The U.K. Biobank in Cardiff, Wales, and its partners Regeneron Genetics Center in Tarrytown, New York and drug maker GlaxoSmithKline, or GSK, in London describe their findings in an advance, non-peer reviewed, article on the pre-print web site BioRxiv, published on Saturday, 9 March.

The U.K. Biobank recruited 500,000 individuals beginning in 2006 to volunteer their genetics data to help prevent, diagnose, and treat a range of common diseases, including cancer, heart diseases, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, osteoporosis, eye disorders, depression, and forms of dementia. The volunteers provide provide bio-specimen samples, such as saliva or blood, for analysis, as well as access to their health records, with all personal identifying information in the donated records removed.

Regeneron Genetics Center is a subsidiary of the biotechnology company Regeneron that applies high-throughput genomic sequencing to discovery of new treatments. The center sequences exomes, that cover the exons, or protein coding regions of the human genome. Exomes account for only a small part, 1 to 2 percent, of base pairs in the genome, but they represent about 85 percent of all disease causing mutations. The Regeneron center then correlates results of the whole exome sequencing to de-identified medical records.

The first reports show strong associations between loss-of-function mutations, where the gene’s DNA chemistry prevents production of needed proteins, and several common health conditions. The researchers found in nearly 7 of 10 cases (69%), participants’ genes expressed 10 or more loss-of-function conditions, with nearly all (97%) genes expressing at least one of these conditions. The strongest associations found in the data linked PIEZO1 gene variations to varicose veins, MEPE gene variations to bone density, IQGAP2 and GMPR variations to blood cell traits, and COL6A1 alterations to corneal resistance, the ability of the eyes’ outside layers to respond to stress.

In addition, the analysis found 2 percent of the participants display a genetic variation that requires medical treatment. Among those results are rare mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes that code for proteins suppressing tumors, which indicate higher cancer risks.

“There is so much actionable information in this resource that can be utilized by scientific minds around the globe.,” says Aris Baras, head of Regeneron Genetics Center in a company and U.K. Biobank statement. “We are hard at work mining the data for novel findings that will accelerate science, innovative new medicines, and improve patient care, and we are excited to have others join us in this important quest.”

As reported by Science & Enterprise in March 2017, Regeneron and GSK have first access to these records, with their initial findings reported on Saturday. Regeneron and a number of other biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies plan to analyze and report on the remaining 450,000 data records over the next 2 years.

U.K. Biobank is making the initial data available to the research community. The organization also says it updated its data records on all 500,000 participants, and offers new and updated algorithms for analyzing asthma, kidney disease, dementia, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, and heart attack.

More from Science & Enterprise:

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Steady Growth for Your Small Business

– Contributed content –

Business desk top view


11 Mar. 2019. Every small business entrepreneur wants their miniature empire to grow, but there are right and wrong ways to go about achieving that goal. This is why so many small businesses fail during the early stages. You need to have big ambitions for your company, but it’s important to make the right kind of investments and decisions for growth. In other words, you shouldn’t run before you can walk. You need to aim to make gradual steps towards expansion so that your business can adapt. How should your small business aim to grow steadily? We’ll talk about that in this article.

Improve your spending and saving habits.

If your small business aims to grow steadily then you need to improve your spending and savings habit. For starters, make some wiser investments. If you want to deliver a more extensive service to the market then outsource operations instead of hiring more full-time employees. It’s more cost-effective; you’ll still be delivering a high-quality service on an extended scale, but you won’t be paying full-time salaries. Of course, investing well is only one aspect of achieving financial stability in your small business. If you want to grow then you need to make increasingly bigger investments so as to increase your available opportunities and resources.

This might involve tidying up your finances by reducing unnecessary overheads. There are plenty of ways to achieve this. Improving energy usage in the office to reduce electricity bills could help, for instance. You could also save money by going fully digital and removing the need to use paper at all. But you might want to seek help from an accounting and finance staffing agency too. This could help you to find the best possible candidates for all manner of financial positions at your company. Improving your spending and savings habits is something you need to do on a constant basis, so you need a dedicated team to help you.

Get your existing client base to help you.

You might think that if you build it then they will come, but this often isn’t the case in competitive industries. Your potential customers are already getting the goods and services they need from your rivals. If you want to expand your client base then you need to get help from your existing customers. Word-of-mouth marketing is a powerful way to spread brand awareness. You just need to give your clients a reason to talk about you. Start a referral scheme; if customers know that they’ll get rewards for referring their friends to your business then they’ll definitely start talking.

Develop a community-oriented brand.

Another way to grow your business steadily is to develop a community-oriented brand. This is the key to lasting in the long-term. Your company needs to appeal to the target market in a way that sets you apart from the competition. And your brand needs to be constantly developed so that you remain relevant in an ever-changing marketplace. Perhaps you could create an eco-friendly brand. This is smart in the long-term because sustainability is important in our world of scarcity. But it’s also smart because it’ll impress the target market. Consumers care about the planet, and they want to buy things from businesses that also care about the planet.

The point is you have to show people that your company values more than just money. Donate to charity, offer free business classes to young people, and give back to the community in other ways. That’s how your brand will build a reputation, and it’s how your small business will grow.

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Commentary – Scott Gottlieb’s Legacy

Scott Gottlieb

Scott Gottlieb, FDA Commissioner, in November 2017 (A. Kotok)

10 Mar. 2019. A standing rule in Washington, D.C. is when an office-holder resigns to “spend more time with my family,” he or she is about to be caught in some kind of scandal. In the case of Scott Gottlieb, Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration, however, he really wants to spend more time with his 3 growing children in Westport, Connecticut, where he commutes each weekend. Gottlieb announced his resignation this past Tuesday, 5 March, and he’s shown you can believe what he says.

When Gottlieb was sworn in as commissioner in May 2017, he came well prepared for the job. He served as FDA’s deputy commissioner in the George W. Bush administration, and also as a partner at New Enterprise Associates, a venture capital company in Chevy Chase, Maryland. In addition, Gottlieb has an M.D. degree from Mount Sinai medical school in New York, and later practiced internal medicine at New York University medical center. And he brings a patient’s perspective to the job as a survivor of Hodgkin’s lymphoma, a form of blood cancer, according to Wikipedia.

When Gottlieb announced his resignation, much of the news coverage focused on his battle against e-cigarettes, commonly called vaping. But his legacy goes much deeper. Gottlieb is probably the most un-Trumpian of this administration’s appointees: serious, professional and evidence-driven. In an administration that prides itself on disregarding, if not battling, scientific findings, Gottlieb stood out for letting science govern FDA’s work.

Gottlieb’s legacy is aided by the 21st Century Cures Act, signed into law in December 2016, that gave FDA new tools to speed new kinds of medical products to the marketplace, such as regenerative medicines. During his tenure, FDA issued a number of guidance documents outlining new regulatory processes and practices that streamline reviews, yet are still dictated by scientific evidence. Here are 10 of these documents and advances reported by Science & Enterprise:

  • A digital health innovation plan in June 2017 to review and certify the rapidly growing number of new medical apps for mobile devices
  • Clinical trials for precision medicine in December 2017, and a companion document covering diagnostic tests that determine a patient’s status for taking part in clinical studies of therapies based on genomic factors
  • Release of more clinical trial data in January 2018, and in a more user-friendly form
  • New methods for collecting data from patients in June 2018 that the agency says will help improve evaluations of more precisely targeted drugs
  • A series of regulatory guidance documents on gene therapies, in July 2018, covering therapies for hemophilia, retinal disorders, and rare diseases
  • Pilot tests of new types of complex clinical trials in August 2018, and proposals for a procedure to evaluate machine learning algorithms used in diagnostics
  • Regulatory guidance in October 2018 to cover advances in biotechnology, including genome editing, in animals and plants
  • Streamlined policies in November 2018 for making drugs and medical devices in clinical trials or under review available for people in the U.S. with life-threatening conditions
  • Identification of a public database of genomics and diseases in December 2018 as a resource to assess new diagnostics tests using genetic data for precision medicine
  • Regulatory guidance in February 2019 for FDA review of implanted medical devices that connect human brains to computer systems

I heard Gottlieb speak at National Press Club in November 2017, and was struck by the serious, technocratic, and business-like tone of his talk, hardly the rantings of an ideologue. And the industry reacted negatively when he announced his leaving FDA; according to CNBC, a biotechnology stock index fell more than 2 percent the next day, attributed to the resignation announcement.

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Finding The Right Marketing Internship

– Contributed content –

Online marketing on tablet

(muneebfarman, Pixabay)

10 Mar. 2019. Are you interested in doing a marketing internship? This is an exciting field that seems to be moving at a rapid pace at the moment. There are many opportunities for interns, and thus choosing the right one is pivotal. With that being said, read on to discover the five things you need to look for in a marketing internship program.

  1.    Type of marketing – You need to decide what area of marketing you want to get into. Can you see yourself in public relations? How about brand management? Other popular fields include advertising and market research. You should spend time researching all of the different job titles in marketing to get an idea of the sort of path you want to go down.
  2.    Experience – The next thing you need to assess is the type of experience you are going to get from the internship you select. Is this experience that would be relevant to any job you would apply for in the future?
  3.    Organization type – Aside from this, you must make sure the organization is the type of organization you can see yourself working at in the future. After all, you have everything from SMEs to huge corporations, you could also go for an SEO company or a general marketing firm, and the working environments are very different from one and other and offer an entirely different experience.
  4.    Networking opportunities – You must select an internship that provides you with good networking opportunities. This is one of the key reasons for doing an internship, especially an internship overseas. You will be able to build up business relationships with clients, colleagues, and other professionals. You never know what could come from this in the future, and you will be more attractive to future employees if you have a large and varied contact book.
  5.    Digital activities – It does not matter what area of marketing you are interested in, you need an internship that is going to provide you with experience in the digital realm. This is imperative when you consider the dominance of online marketing in the current day and age. All professionals need to have an understanding of social media marketing, industry standard editing programs, search engine optimization and such like.

If you consider the five points that have been mentioned when selecting an internship you will have a much better chance of selecting the right internship for you. Of course, this is a big decision for anyone to make, as it impacts your career and your future. However, by using this blog post as a guideline, you should be able to narrow down your search effectively and ensure the internship you choose is the right fit for you.

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Infographic – Mobile Internet Costs Worldwide

Chart - mobile internet costs

Click on image for full-size view (Statista)

9 Mar. 2019. We’ve reported at Science & Enterprise on many uses of smartphones and sensors, particularly for research, telemedicine, and — just this week — monitoring the state of vital infrastructure. But assumed in many of those applications is the ability to easily and inexpensively transmit the data collected by these devices over mobile internet services for collection and analysis. The links below give a few more recent examples.

And also this week, our friends at Statista provide an indication of the cost paid by consumers for transmitting those data over the mobile internet in many countries of the world, our infographic for this weekend. The findings for 15 of the 230 countries compiled by the British web site, show mobile internet users in India and Russia pay the least out-of-pocket for their services, with prices for a gigabyte of data under $US 1.00. At the other end of the range, people in South Korea and Switzerland pay about $15.00 and $20.00 respectively for a gigabyte of mobile internet data. And off the chart — both literally and figuratively — is Zimbabwe, where mobile internet costs more than $75.00 to send or receive one gigabyte of data.

North American mobile internet consumers, in Canada and the U.S. pay about $12.00 per mobile gigabyte of data, at the higher end of the scale, while most of the rest of the world pays roughly between $2.00 to $10.00 for each gigabyte of data. A analyst says the wide variation in prices reflects the state of each country’s fixed and mobile broadband infrastructures, as well as government policies that subsidize consumer internet services.

More from Science & Enterprise:

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